Here is the full text of the apology given by PM Kevin Rudd on behalf of the Australian government to the Aboriginals. The you tube video of him giving the speech is at http://youtube.com/watch?v=AtfMIJqQwPk
Text of PM Rudd’s ‘sorry’ address
February 13, 2008 – 4:08PM
That today we honour the indigenous peoples of this land, the oldest
continuing cultures in human history.
We reflect on their past mistreatment.
We reflect in particular on the mistreatment of those who were stolen
generations – this blemished chapter in our nation’s history.
The time has now come for the nation to turn a new page in
Australia’s history by righting the wrongs of the past and so moving
forward with confidence to the future.
We apologise for the laws and policies of successive parliaments and
governments that have inflicted profound grief, suffering and loss on
these our fellow Australians.
We apologise especially for the removal of Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander children from their families, their communities and
For the pain, suffering and hurt of these stolen generations, their
descendants and for their families left behind, we say sorry.
To the mothers and the fathers, the brothers and the sisters, for the
breaking up of families and communities, we say sorry.
And for the indignity and degradation thus inflicted on a proud
people and a proud culture, we say sorry.
We the Parliament of Australia respectfully request that this apology
be received in the spirit in which it is offered as part of the
healing of the nation.
For the future we take heart; resolving that this new page in the
history of our great continent can now be written.
We today take this first step by acknowledging the past and laying
claim to a future that embraces all Australians.
A future where this parliament resolves that the injustices of the
past must never, never happen again.
A future where we harness the determination of all Australians,
indigenous and non-indigenous, to close the gap that lies between us
in life expectancy, educational achievement and economic opportunity.
A future where we embrace the possibility of new solutions to
enduring problems where old approaches have failed.
A future based on mutual respect, mutual resolve and mutual
A future where all Australians, whatever their origins, are truly
equal partners, with equal opportunities and with an equal stake in
shaping the next chapter in the history of this great country,
There comes a time in the history of nations when their peoples must
become fully reconciled to their past if they are to go forward with
confidence to embrace their future.
Our nation, Australia, has reached such a time.
That is why the Parliament is today here assembled: to deal with this
unfinished business of the nation, to remove a great stain from the
nations soul and, in a true spirit of reconciliation, to open a new
chapter in the history of this great land, Australia.
Last year I made a commitment to the Australian people that if we
formed the next government of the Commonwealth we would in Parliament
say sorry to the stolen generations.
Today I honour that commitment.
I said we would do so early in the life of the new Parliament.
Again, today I honour that commitment by doing so at the commencement
of this the 42nd parliament of the Commonwealth.
Because the time has come, well and truly come, for all peoples of
our great country, for all citizens of our great commonwealth, for
all Australians – those who are indigenous and those who are not – to
come together to reconcile and together build a new future for our
Some have asked, Why apologise?
Let me begin to answer by telling the Parliament just a little of one
person’s story – an elegant, eloquent and wonderful woman in her 80s,
full of life, full of funny stories, despite what has happened in her
life’s journey, a woman who has travelled a long way to be with us
today, a member of the stolen generation who shared some of her story
with me when
I called around to see her just a few days ago.
Nanna Nungala Fejo, as she prefers to be called, was born in the late
She remembers her earliest childhood days living with her family and
her community in a bush camp just outside Tennant Creek.
She remembers the love and the warmth and the kinship of those days
long ago, including traditional dancing around the camp fire at night.
She loved the dancing. She remembers once getting into strife when,
as a four-year-old girl, she insisted on dancing with the male tribal
elders rather than just sitting and watching the men, as the girls
were supposed to do.
But then, sometime around 1932, when she was about four, she
remembers the coming of the welfare men.
Her family had feared that day and had dug holes in the creek bank
where the children could run and hide.
What they had not expected was that the white welfare men did not
come alone. They brought a truck, two white men and an Aboriginal
stockman on horseback cracking his stockwhip.
The kids were found; they ran for their mothers, screaming, but they
could not get away. They were herded and piled onto the back of the
Tears flowing, her mum tried clinging to the sides of the truck as
her children were taken away to the Bungalow in Alice, all in the
name of protection..
A few years later, government policy changed. Now the children would
be handed over to the missions to be cared for by the churches. But
which church would care for them?
The kids were simply told to line up in three lines. Nanna Fejo and
her sister stood in the middle line, her older brother and cousin on
her left. Those on the left were told that they had become Catholics,
those in the middle Methodists and those on the right Church of England.
That is how the complex questions of post-reformation theology were
resolved in the Australian outback in the 1930s. It was as crude as
She and her sister were sent to a Methodist mission on Goulburn
Island and then Croker Island. Her Catholic brother was sent to work
at a cattle station and her cousin to a Catholic mission.
Nanna Fejo’s family had been broken up for a second time. She stayed
at the mission until after the war, when she was allowed to leave for
a prearranged job as a domestic in Darwin. She was 16. Nanna Fejo
never saw her mum again.
After she left the mission, her brother let her know that her mum had
died years before, a broken woman fretting for the children that had
literally been ripped away from her.
I asked Nanna Fejo what she would have me say today about her story.
She thought for a few moments then said that what I should say today
was that ”all mothers are important”.
And she added: ”Families – keeping them together is very important.
It’s a good thing that you are surrounded by love and that love is
passed down the generations. That’s what gives you happiness.”
As I left, later on, Nanna Fejo took one of my staff aside, wanting
to make sure that I was not too hard on the Aboriginal stockman who
had hunted those kids down all those years ago.
The stockman had found her again decades later, this time himself to
say, sorry. And remarkably, extraordinarily, she had forgiven him.
Nanna Fejo’s is just one story. There are thousands, tens of
thousands of them: stories of forced separation of Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander children from their mums and dads over the
better part of a century.
Some of these stories are graphically told in Bringing Them Home, the
report commissioned in 1995 by Prime Minister Keating and received in
1997 by Prime Minister Howard.
There is something terribly primal about these firsthand accounts.
The pain is searing; it screams from the pages. The hurt, the
humiliation, the degradation and the sheer brutality of the act of
physically separating a mother from her children is a deep assault on
our senses and on our most elemental humanity.
These stories cry out to be heard; they cry out for an apology.
Instead, from the nation’s Parliament there has been a stony,
stubborn and deafening silence for more than a decade; a view that
somehow we, the Parliament, should suspend our most basic instincts
of what is right and what is wrong; a view that, instead, we should
look for any pretext to push this great wrong to one side, to leave
it languishing with the
historians, the academics and the cultural warriors, as if the stolen
generations are little more than an interesting sociological phenomenon.
But the stolen generations are not intellectual curiosities. They are
human beings, human beings who have been damaged deeply by the
decisions of parliaments and governments. But, as of today, the time
for denial, the time for delay, has at last come to an end.
The nation is demanding of its political leadership to take us forward.
Decency, human decency, universal human decency, demands that the
nation now step forward to right an historical wrong. That is what we
are doing in this place today.
But should there still be doubts as to why we must now act, let the
Parliament reflect for a moment on the following facts: that, between
1910 and 1970, between 10 and 30% of indigenous children were
forcibly taken from their mothers and fathers; that, as a result, up
to 50,000 children were forcibly taken from their families; that this
was the product
of the deliberate, calculated policies of the state as reflected in
the explicit powers given to them under statute; that this policy was
taken to such extremes by some in administrative authority that the
forced extractions of children of so-called mixed lineage were seen
as part of a broader policy of dealing with the problem of the
One of the most notorious examples of this approach was from the
Northern Territory Protector of Natives, who stated: ”Generally by
the fifth and invariably by the sixth generation, all native
characteristics of the Australian Aborigine are eradicated. The
problem of our half-castes” – to quote the protector – ”will
quickly be eliminated by the complete disappearance of the black
race, and the swift submergence of their progeny in the white”.
The Western Australian Protector of Natives expressed not dissimilar
views, expounding them at length in Canberra in 1937 at the first
national conference on indigenous affairs that brought together the
Commonwealth and state protectors of natives.
These are uncomfortable things to be brought out into the light. They
are not pleasant. They are profoundly disturbing.
But we must acknowledge these facts if we are to deal once and for
all with the argument that the policy of generic forced separation
was somehow well motivated, justified by its historical context and,
as a result, unworthy of any apology today.
Then we come to the argument of intergenerational responsibility,
also used by some to argue against giving an apology today.
But let us remember the fact that the forced removal of Aboriginal
children was happening as late as the early 1970s.
The 1970s is not exactly a point in remote antiquity. There are still
serving members of this Parliament who were first elected to this
place in the early 1970s.
It is well within the adult memory span of many of us.
The uncomfortable truth for us all is that the parliaments of the
nation, individually and collectively, enacted statutes and delegated
authority under those statutes that made the forced removal of
children on racial grounds fully lawful.
There is a further reason for an apology as well: it is that
reconciliation is in fact an expression of a core value of our nation
– and that value is a fair go for all.
There is a deep and abiding belief in the Australian community that,
for the stolen generations, there was no fair go at all.
There is a pretty basic Aussie belief that says that it is time to
put right this most outrageous of wrongs.
It is for these reasons, quite apart from concerns of fundamental
human decency, that the governments and parliaments of this nation
must make this apology – because, put simply, the laws that our
parliaments enacted made the stolen generations possible.
We, the parliaments of the nation, are ultimately responsible, not
those who gave effect to our laws. And the problem lay with the laws
As has been said of settler societies elsewhere, we are the bearers
of many blessings from our ancestors; therefore we must also be the
bearer of their burdens as well.
Therefore, for our nation, the course of action is clear: that is, to
deal now with what has become one of the darkest chapters in
In doing so, we are doing more than contending with the facts, the
evidence and the often rancorous public debate.
In doing so, we are also wrestling with our own soul.
This is not, as some would argue, a black-armband view of history; it
is just the truth: the cold, confronting, uncomfortable truth –
facing it, dealing with it, moving on from it.
Until we fully confront that truth, there will always be a shadow
hanging over us and our future as a fully united and fully reconciled
It is time to reconcile. It is time to recognise the injustices of
the past.. It is time to say sorry. It is time to move forward together.
To the stolen generations, I say the following: as Prime Minister of
Australia, I am sorry.
On behalf of the Government of Australia, I am sorry.
On behalf of the Parliament of Australia, I am sorry.
I offer you this apology without qualification.
We apologise for the hurt, the pain and suffering that we, the
parliament, have caused you by the laws that previous parliaments
We apologise for the indignity, the degradation and the humiliation
these laws embodied.
We offer this apology to the mothers, the fathers, the brothers, the
sisters, the families and the communities whose lives were ripped
apart by the actions of successive governments under successive
In making this apology, I would also like to speak personally to the
members of the stolen generations and their families: to those here
today, so many of you; to those listening across the nation – from
Yuendumu, in the central west of the Northern Territory, to Yabara,
in North Queensland, and to Pitjantjatjara in South Australia.
I know that, in offering this apology on behalf of the Government and
the Parliament, there is nothing I can say today that can take away
the pain you have suffered personally.
Whatever words I speak today, I cannot undo that.
Words alone are not that powerful; grief is a very personal thing.
I ask those non-indigenous Australians listening today who may not
fully understand why what we are doing is so important to imagine for
a moment that this had happened to you.
I say to honourable members here present: imagine if this had
happened to us. Imagine the crippling effect. Imagine how hard it
would be to forgive.
My proposal is this: if the apology we extend today is accepted in
the spirit of reconciliation, in which it is offered, we can today
resolve together that there be a new beginning for Australia.
And it is to such a new beginning that I believe the nation is now
Australians are a passionate lot. We are also a very practical lot.
For us, symbolism is important but, unless the great symbolism of
reconciliation is accompanied by an even greater substance, it is
little more than a clanging gong.
It is not sentiment that makes history; it is our actions that make
Today’s apology, however inadequate, is aimed at righting past wrongs.
It is also aimed at building a bridge between indigenous and non-
indigenous Australians – a bridge based on a real respect rather than
a thinly veiled contempt.
Our challenge for the future is to cross that bridge and, in so
doing, to embrace a new partnership between indigenous and non-
indigenous Australians – to embrace, as part of that partnership,
expanded Link-up and other critical services to help the stolen
generations to trace their families if at all possible and to provide
dignity to their lives.
But the core of this partnership for the future is to close the gap
between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians on life expectancy,
educational achievement and employment opportunities.
This new partnership on closing the gap will set concrete targets for
the future: within a decade to halve the widening gap in literacy,
numeracy and employment outcomes and opportunities for indigenous
Australians, within a decade to halve the appalling gap in infant
mortality rates between indigenous and non-indigenous children and,
within a generation,
to close the equally appalling 17-year life gap between indigenous
and non-indigenous in overall life expectancy.
The truth is: a business as usual approach towards indigenous
Australians is not working.
Most old approaches are not working.
We need a new beginning, a new beginning which contains real measures
of policy success or policy failure; a new beginning, a new
partnership, on closing the gap with sufficient flexibility not to
insist on a one-size-fits-all approach for each of the hundreds of
remote and regional indigenous communities across the country but
instead allowing flexible,
tailored, local approaches to achieve commonly-agreed national
objectives that lie at the core of our proposed new partnership; a
new beginning that draws intelligently on the experiences of new
policy settings across the nation.
However, unless we as a Parliament set a destination for the nation,
we have no clear point to guide our policy, our programs or our
purpose; we have no centralised organising principle.
Let us resolve today to begin with the little children, a fitting
place to start on this day of apology for the stolen generations.
Let us resolve over the next five years to have every indigenous four-
year-old in a remote Aboriginal community enrolled in and attending a
proper early childhood education centre or opportunity and engaged in
proper pre-literacy and pre-numeracy programs.
Let us resolve to build new educational opportunities for these
little ones, year by year, step by step, following the completion of
their crucial pre-school year.
Let us resolve to use this systematic approach to build future
educational opportunities for indigenous children to provide proper
primary and preventive health care for the same children, to begin
the task of rolling back the obscenity that we find today in infant
mortality rates in remote indigenous communities up to four times
higher than in other
None of this will be easy. Most of it will be hard, very hard. But
none of it is impossible, and all of it is achievable with clear
goals, clear thinking, and by placing an absolute premium on respect,
cooperation and mutual responsibility as the guiding principles of
this new partnership on closing the gap.
The mood of the nation is for reconciliation now, between indigenous
and non-indigenous Australians. The mood of the nation on indigenous
policy and politics is now very simple.
The nation is calling on us, the politicians, to move beyond our
infantile bickering, our point-scoring and our mindlessly partisan
politics and to elevate this one core area of national responsibility
to a rare position beyond the partisan divide.
Surely this is the unfulfilled spirit of the 1967 referendum. Surely,
at least from this day forward, we should give it a go.
Let me take this one step further and take what some may see as a
piece of political posturing and make a practical proposal to the
opposition on this day, the first full sitting day of the new
I said before the election that the nation needed a kind of war
cabinet on parts of indigenous policy, because the challenges are too
great and the consequences are too great to allow it all to become a
political football, as it has been so often in the past.
I therefore propose a joint policy commission, to be led by the
Leader of the Opposition and me, with a mandate to develop and
implement, to begin with, an effective housing strategy for remote
communities over the next five years.
It will be consistent with the Government’s policy framework, a new
partnership for closing the gap. If this commission operates well, I
then propose that it work on the further task of constitutional
recognition of the first Australians, consistent with the
longstanding platform commitments of my party and the pre-election
position of the opposition.
This would probably be desirable in any event because, unless such a
proposition were absolutely bipartisan, it would fail at a
referendum. As I have said before, the time has come for new
approaches to enduring problems.
Working constructively together on such defined projects would, I
believe, meet with the support of the nation. It is time for fresh
ideas to fashion the nation’s future.
Mr Speaker, today the Parliament has come together to right a great
wrong. We have come together to deal with the past so that we might
fully embrace the future. We have had sufficient audacity of faith to
advance a pathway to that future, with arms extended rather than with
fists still clenched.
So let us seize the day. Let it not become a moment of mere
Let us take it with both hands and allow this day, this day of
national reconciliation, to become one of those rare moments in which
we might just be able to transform the way in which the nation thinks
about itself, whereby the injustice administered to the stolen
generations in the name of these, our parliaments, causes all of us
to reappraise, at the deepest
level of our beliefs, the real possibility of reconciliation writ
large: reconciliation across all indigenous Australia; reconciliation
across the entire history of the often bloody encounter between those
who emerged from the Dreamtime a thousand generations ago and those
who, like me, came across the seas only yesterday; reconciliation
which opens up whole new possibilities for the future.
It is for the nation to bring the first two centuries of our settled
history to a close, as we begin a new chapter. We embrace with pride,
admiration and awe these great and ancient cultures we are truly
blessed to have among us cultures that provide a unique,
uninterrupted human thread linking our Australian continent to the
most ancient prehistory of our planet.
Growing from this new respect, we see our indigenous brothers and
sisters with fresh eyes, with new eyes, and we have our minds wide
open as to how we might tackle, together, the great practical
challenges that indigenous Australia faces in the future.
Let us turn this page together: indigenous and non-indigenous
Australians, government and opposition, Commonwealth and state, and
write this new chapter in our nation’s story together.
First Australians, First Fleeters, and those who first took the oath
of allegiance just a few weeks ago. Let’s grasp this opportunity to
craft a new future for this great land: Australia. I commend the
motion to the House.